1. Abufaraj, M., Xu, T., Cao, C., Siyam, A., Isleem, U., Massad, A., Soria, F., Shariat, S. F., Sutcliffe, S., & Yang, L. (2021). Prevalence and trends in urinary incontinence among women in the United States, 2005–2018. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 225(2), 166.e1-166.e12.
  2. Lee, U. J., Feinstein, L., Ward, J. B., Kirkali, Z.,Martinez-Miller, E. E., Matlaga, B. R., & Kobashi, K. C. (2021). Prevalence of urinary incontinence among a nationally representative Sample of Women, 2005-2016: Findings from the Urologic Diseases in America Project. The Journal of Urology, 205(6), 1718–1724.
  3. Medina, M., & Castillo-Pino, E. (2019). An introduction to the epidemiology and burden of urinary tract infections. In Therapeutic Advances in Urology (Vol. 11). SAGE Publications Inc.
  4. Moore, B., Stocks, C., & Owens, P. (2017, September). Trends in Emergency Department Visits, 2006-2014 #227. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.
  5. Ohanian, S., Dizon, A., Atabaki, A., Dumais, M. R., & Nensey, R. (2022). Reducing Indwelling urinary catheter utilization results in reduction of associated urinary tract infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 50(7, Supplement), S36.
  6. Eriksson, I., Gustafson, Y., Fagerström, L., & Olofsson, B. (2010). Prevalence and factors associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in very old women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 50(2), 132–135.
  7. Mody, L., & Juthani-Mehta, M. (2014). Urinary tract infections in older women: A clinical review. JAMA, 311(8), 844.
  8. Wilson, M. L., & Gaido, L. (2004). Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tractinfections in adult patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38(8), 1150–1158.
  9. Best, J., Kitlowski, A. David, D., & Bedolla, J. (2014). Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Practice, 16(7).
  10. Lifshitz, E., & Kramer, L. (2000). Outpatient Urine Culture: Does Collection Technique Matter? Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(16), 2537–2540.
  11. Sinawe, H., & Casadesus, D. (2022). Urine Culture. Nephrology and Urology of Small Animals, 62–69.
  12. Patel, Ushma J et al. “Updated Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in Women: 2015-2018 National Population-Based Survey Data.” Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery, 10.1097/SPV.0000000000001127. 12 Jan. 2022, doi:10.1097/SPV.0000000000001127.
  13. Hart, Janelle. “The Current State of Urinary Incontinence among US Women.” Urology Times, 3 Feb. 2022.
  14. Lachenbruch, Charlie et al. “Pressure Ulcer Risk in the Incontinent Patient: Analysis of Incontinence and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers From the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence™ Survey.” Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing: official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society vol. 43,3 (2016): 235-41. doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000225.
  15. Junkin J, Selekof JL. Prevalence of incontinence and associated skin injury in the acute care inpatient. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007 May-Jun;34(3):260-9. doi: 10.1097/01.WON.0000270820.91694.1f. PMID: 17505245.
  16. Kayser SA, Phipps L, VanGilder CA, Lachenbruch C. Examining Prevalence and Risk Factors of Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis Using the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2019 Jul/Aug;46(4):285-290. doi: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000548. PMID: 31276451; PMCID: PMC6716554.
  17. Henderson, E. Study shows higher health care costs and worse outcomes for incontinent patients. News Medical. Nov. 18, 2021.
  18. Bliss DZ et. Al. Incontinence-associated dermatitis in critically ill adults: time to development, severity, and risk factors. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2011; 38(4):433-45 (ISSN: 1528-3976)
  19. Moon, Shinje, et al. “The Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Falls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PLOS ONE, vol. 16, no. 5, 19 May 2021.
  20. Fernandez-Lasquetty Blanc B et al. Appropriateness of the use of incontinence absorbent products in hospitalized adults. Enferm Clin. 2015 Jul-Aug;25(4):198-203. Spanish. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2015.06.001. Epub 2015 Jul 23. PMID: 26212668.
  21. Letica-Kriegel, Allison S et al. “Identifying the risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a large cross-sectional study of six hospitals.” BMJ open vol. 9,2 e022137. 21 Feb. 2019, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022137.
  22. Wilson, L et al. “Annual direct cost of urinary incontinence.” Obstetrics
  23. and gynecology vol. 98,3 (2001): 398-406. doi:10.1016/s0029-7844(01)01464-8.
  24. Simmering, Jacob E et al. “The Increase in Hospitalizations for Urinary Tract Infections and the Associated Costs in the United States, 1998-2011.” Open forum infectious diseases vol. 4,1 ofw281. 24 Feb. 2017, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofw281.
  25. Scott, R. Douglas. “The Direct Medical Costs of Healthcare-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals and the Benefits of Prevention.” CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  26. Hollenbeak, Christopher S, and Amber L Schilling. “The attributable cost of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the United States: A systematic review.” American
  27. journal of infection control vol. 46,7 (2018): 751-757. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2018.01.015.
  28. Durrant J, Snape J. Urinary incontinence in nursing homes for older people. Age Ageing. 2003 Jan;32(1):12-8. doi: 10.1093/ageing/32.1.12. PMID: 12540342.
  29. Omli R, et al. Pad per day usage, urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections in nursing home residents. Age Ageing. 2010 Sep;39(5):549-54. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afq082. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID: 20631404.
  30. Genao, Liza, and Gwendolen T Buhr. “Urinary Tract Infections in Older Adults Residing in
  31. Long-Term Care Facilities.” The annals of long-term care: the official journal of the American Medical Directors Association vol. 20,4 (2012): 33-38.
  32. Jeffers, Holly, and Maureen Baker. “Continuity of care: still important in modern-day general practice.” The British journal of general practice: the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners vol. 66,649 (2016): 396-7. doi:10.3399/bjgp16X686185
  33. Newman, Diane K. “Types and Materials – External Urine Collection Devices.” UroToday Apr. 2020.
  34. Beeson, T and Carmen, D. Urinary Management With an External Female Collection Device. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society vol. 45,2 (2018): 187-189. doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000417.
  35. Anderson, Sara Jane, and Karlie Walter. “Nurs 360: In Hospitalized Women, What Is the Effect of Using a Purewick® on the Decreased Risk of Genitourinary Infections Compared with an Indwelling Foley Catheter within a Hospital Stay?” Digital Commons @ Longwood University, NURS 360, 21 Apr. 2020.
  36. Zavodnick, Jillian, et al. “Effect of a Female External Urinary Catheter on Incidence of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection.” Cureus, vol. 12, no. 10, 2020.
  37. Altman, Daniel. Poster. Swedish Association for Obstetrics and Gynecology Conference. Aug. 27-29, 2018
  38. Kaya N, et al. Innovation in Nursing: A Concept Analysis. J Comm Pub Health Nursing 1:108. doi:10.4172/2471-9846.1000108. 2016.
  39. Thijssen, Salina V., et al. “The Barriers and Facilitators of Radical Innovation Implementation in Secondary Healthcare: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Health Organization and Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print (2021).